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Working Principle and Classification of Shearing Machine

Working Principle and Classification of Shearing Machine

Jun 10,2022
Shearing machine belongs to the category of linear shearing machine. It is a kind of shearing equipment widely used in machining. It is mainly used for cutting various sizes of metal straight edges of the sheet. Shearing machines can be divided into two categories: mechanical shears and hydraulic shears. Let's take a look at the functions and types of shears.

Working principle and classification of the shearing machine

1. Shearing machine is widely used in the direct shearing of various metal materials according to different needs, mainly used in steel manufacturing, shipbuilding, automobile, container manufacturing, switchgear, machinery manufacturing, light industry, and other industries.

2. The shearing machine is driven by the hydraulic system to press the material to press the steel plate, and the left and right oil cylinders drive the tool holder to move up and down. The upper blade on the knife holder is fixed on the lower blade of the lower blade holder, with reasonable blade clearance and various thicknesses, the metal plates are subjected to shearing force to separate the metal plates in the required size.

3. Shearing machines can be divided into two categories: mechanical shearing machines and hydraulic shearing machines according to their structural forms. Due to the large energy consumption and excessive noise of mechanical shearing machines, the common ones are mainly hydraulic shearing machines. According to the movement trajectory of the frame, hydraulic shears can be divided into two categories: hydraulic pendulum shears and hydraulic gate shears.

Main structure and function of shearing machine

1. Frame: The main body of the shearing machine is completely installed on the frame, and the overall steel structure is welded, which has the characteristics of good rigidity and strong deformation resistance.

2. Knife holder: Fix the upper blade, connect with the hydraulic cylinder, move up and down in a straight line, transmit the shearing force, and realize the shearing work. In addition, the back gauge mechanism is also fixed on the tool holder for positioning the size of the shearing plate.

3. Back gauge mechanism: fixed on the small frame, including back gauge adjustment motor, micro-motion adjustment mechanism, tailgate lift mechanism, a digital display device, drive screw, guide rod, and other mechanisms. The rear gear motor is driven by the front and rear running buttons of the electric gear to drive the rear end material to run the screw rod, which drives the rear baffle to run back and forth to achieve material break.

4. Gap adjustment device: adjust the gap between the upper and lower blades according to the shearing material and plate thickness to achieve the best shearing force, which can not only protect the life of the blade but also ensure the quality of the product.

Adjustment principle: generally adjusted according to the 10% gap value of the thickness of the material to be cut.

5. Front loading device: In order to reduce the labor intensity of the operator during the operation, a steel plate handling device is provided to facilitate the operator to feed the material. It is fixed on the workbench, and there is also a side stop device fixed on the workbench to ensure that the two sides of the cut sheet are vertical.

6. Compression device, safety protection device: In order to prevent the material from being hit during the shearing process, the device used for compression is also called the presser foot. In the lower part of the front wall of the equipment, the fixed guardrail is mainly used to prevent personal injury caused by accidentally protruding into the lower part of the presser foot or the blade.

7. Machine electrical system: The machine electrical system mainly starts the oil pump motor to drive the oil pump, provides the driving force to the hydraulic press, and provides control power. The control electrical appliance mainly opens the solenoid valve according to the operation command, and the oil pump drives the tool holder to move up and down to achieve the purpose of cutting. At the same time, the tool holder travels electrically. The back gauge moves back and forth, the gap increases, and the shear angle is adjusted.

8. The hydraulic system of the machine: it consists of the main oil pump, hydraulic system, hydraulic cylinder, pressure cylinder, hydraulic pipeline, etc. The hydraulic oil pump mainly provides shear pressure for hydraulic equipment. The hydraulic system mainly controls the system pressure and the direction of the hydraulic oil. The pressure cylinder is used to drive the tool holder to realize the shearing function. The presser foot mainly presses the workpiece to ensure the accuracy of the workpiece.

The above briefly introduces the working principle, classification, and functional structure of the shearing machine. If you want to know more or want to buy a shearing machine, please contact us.

Hengli is a professional custom sheet metal shearing devices manufacturer. It is one of the main suppliers of metal sheet cutting and forming automation equipment in China. Our company's R&D department is the provincial high-tech enterprise R&D center, with nearly 50 Chinese and Japanese professional technical engineers. R&D is responsible for the completion of national and provincial scientific research projects such as the National Torch Program, National SME Technology Innovation Fund Program, National Key New Product Program, Zhejiang Province Major Science and Technology, Zhejiang Province Key Technology Innovation, and Provincial Key High-tech Products.